Connect with us


The Writing Style of Hemingway



For Whom the Bell Tolls portrays the typical Hemingway characters and addresses the issues of machoism and womanizing. In this novel, as in many of his other works, Hemingway employs extensive use of what is known as the Hemingway Code. Numerous influences from various people and events from his personal life also had an effect on his writing.

Many people hold the opinion that there has been no American writer like Ernest Hemingway. A member of the World War I “lost generation,” Hemingway was in many ways his own best character. Whether as his childhood nickname of “Champ” or as the older “Papa,” Ernest Hemingway became a legend of his own lifetime. Although the drama and romance of his life sometimes seem to overshadow the quality of his work, Hemingway was first and foremost a literary scholar, a writer and reader of books. This is often overlooked among all the talk about his safaris and hunting trips, adventures with bullfighting, fishing and war. Hemingway enjoyed being famous, and delighted in playing for the public spotlight. However, Hemingway considered himself an artist, and he did not want to become celebrated for all the wrong reasons.

Hemingway was born in the quiet town of Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, on July 21, 1899. His father was a physician, and Ernest was the second of six children born to Dr. and Mrs. Clarence E. Hemingway. His mother, a devout, religious woman with considerable music talent, hoped that her son would develop an interest in music. Instead, Ernest acquired his father’s enthusiasm for guns and for fishing trips in the north woods of Michigan (Lynn 63).

From almost the beginning of his writing career, Hemingway employed a distinctive style which drew comment from many critics. Hemingway does not give way to lengthy geographical and psychological description. His style has been said to lack substance because he avoids direct statements and descriptions of emotion. Basically his style is simple, direct and somewhat plain. He developed a forceful prose style characterized by simple sentences and few adverbs or adjectives. He wrote concise, vivid dialogue and exact description of places and things. Critic Harry Levin pointed out the weakness of syntax and diction in Hemingway’s writing, but was quick to praise his ability to convey action(Rovit 47).

Hemingway spent the early part of his career as a journalist. In 1937, he went to Spain to cover the Spanish Civil War for the North American Newspaper Alliance. After a few months in Spain, Hemingway announced his plan to write a book with the Spanish Civil War as its background. The result was For Whom the Bell Tolls.

The majority of his early novels were narrated in the first person and enclosed within a single point of view, however, when Hemingway wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls, he used several different narrative techniques. He employed the use of internal monologues(where the reader is in the “mind” of a particular character), objective descriptions, rapid shifts of point of view, and in general a looser structure than in his earlier works. Hemingway believed that “a writer’s style should be direct and personal, his imagery rich and earthy, and his words simple and vigorous. The greatest writers have the gift of brevity, are hard workers, diligent scholars and competent stylists(Magill 1287).

For Whom the Bell Tolls is the most serious and politically motivated novel that Hemingway wrote. There are few comic or light episodes in the entire book. For Whom the Bell Tolls is an attempt to present in depth a country and people that Hemingway loved very much. It was an effort to deal honestly with a very complex war made even more complex by the beliefs it inspired(Gurko 127).

Common to almost all of Hemingway’s novels is the concept of the Hemingway hero, sometimes known as the “code hero.” When Hemingway’s novels were first published, the public readily accepted them. Part of this acceptance was due to the fact that Hemingway had created a character whose response to life appealed strongly to those who read his works. The reader saw in the Hemingway hero a person whom they could identify with in almost a dream sense. The Hemmingway hero was a man’s man. He moved from one love affair to another, he participated in wild game hunting, enjoyed bullfights, drank insatiably, he was involved in all of the so-called manly activities in which the typical American male did not participate(Rovit 56).

Hemingway’s involvement in the war instilled him with deep-seated political views. For Whom the Bell Tolls is a study of the individual involved in what was a politically motivated war. But this novel differs greatly from Hemingway’s prior portrayal of the individual hero in the world. In this book, the hero accepts the people around him, not only a few select members of the distinguished, but with the whole community. The organization of this community is stated with great eloquence in the quotation from one of the poet John Donne’s sermons upon the death of a close friend. This is the quotation from which the book takes its title:

No man is an Iland, intire of it selfe, every man is a peece of the Continent, a part of the maine, if a Clod bee washed away by the Sea, Europe is the less, as well as if a Promontorie were, as well as if a Mannor of thy friends or of thine owne were; any mans death diminishes me, because I am involved in Mankinde; And therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; It tolls for I thee.

Therefore, while the hero retains the qualities of the Hemingway Code, he has been built up by his unity with mankind. In the end, he finds the world a “fine place,” that is “worth fighting for”(Curly 795). In his personal confrontation with death, Robert Jordan realizes that there is a larger cause that a man can chose to serve. In this way he differs from the earlier Hemingway hero. The insistence that action and its form be solely placed on one individual is still present, along with the need for the character to dominate that action. However, this issue is not longer a single matador against a single bull, or an individual character against his entire environment. The person is the “instrument of mankind” against the horrors of war. The political issues of this book are therefore presented not as a “contrast of black and white, but in the shaded tones of reality”(Magill 491).

While Jordan is the epitome of the hero in his actions, he is also in command of himself and his circumstances to a far greater extent than Hemingway’s previous heroes; he is driven to face reality by deep emotional needs. Jordan’s drives in the novel seem to be a direct reflection of Hemingway’s own, because Hemingway had also been deeply affected by the suicide of his own father (Kunitz 561). Ironically, suicide as an escape from reality is a violation of Hemingway’s own code. The self-doubt and fear that such an act brings to the children of a person who commits suicide is a well-known psychological outcome. This is perhaps why the painfulness of their fears causes Hemingway’s heroes to avoid “thinking” at all costs. For “thinking” too much may prevent a person from reacting. And without something to react to, the hero is left to face his inner fears (Magill 474). Death is also used by Hemingway at the end of the novel to resolve the dramatic conflicts established by the story. The theme of death is likewise observable in other parts of the book, such as when the characters express their concern about dying during the attack on the bridge. As in other works following the suicide of his father, Hemingway brings his characters face to face with death. He admires those who face death bravely and without expressing emotion. For Hemingway, a man does not truly live life until analyzes the significance of death personally(Brooks 323).

In contrast to the Hemingway heroes are his female characters. Hemingway’s approach to women in his works is particularly masculine. They are seen and valued in relation to the men in his stories insofar as they are absolutely feminine. Hemingway does not go into their inner world except as this world is related to the men with whom they are involved. The reader comes to view them as love objects or as anti-love figures (Whitlock 231). Part of the reason Hemingway had this opinion of woman was because the way he viewed his mother. He believed his mother to be a manipulator and blamed her in part for the suicide of his father. “The qualities he thought admirable in a man-ambition, and independent point of view, defiance of his supremacy-became threatening in a woman”(Kert 103).

Hemingway’s heroines almost always personify the physical appearance of the ideal woman in their beauty. But in their personality they appear as two types: the “all-woman” who gives herself entirely to the hero and the “femme fatale” who retains herself and prevents the hero from possessing her completely. The “all-woman” is acceptable in Hemingway view because she submits to the hero. She wants no other life than with him. By succumbing to the hero, she allows him to dominate her and affirm his manhood. The “femme fatale” is usually a more complex character than the “all-woman” (Lynn 98). While she may or may not be nasty, she does not submit to the hero and wounds him and all the men around her primarily because they can not manage her and thus can not assert their manhood through her. But despite Hemmingway’s portrayal of women, he usually has them fall into the same basic category as the men. The heroine, like the hero, obeys the “Hemmingway Code.” She sees life for what it is even as she longs for something more. She is basically courageous in life, choosing reality over thought, and she faces death stoically. In practically every case there has already been in her life some tragic event-the loss of a lover, violence-which has given her the strength to face life this way (Lynn 102).

For Whom the Bell Tolls “is a living example of how, in modern times, the epic quality must be projected” (Baker 132). Heroic action is an epic quality, and For Whom the Bell Tolls contains this element. The setting is simple and the emphasis is on the basic virtues of uncomplicated people. The men are engaged in the conflict are prepared to sacrifice their lives; they are exceptional for their deeds of daring and heroism (Baker 94).

Behind the conception of this idea of the hero lies the disillusionment of the American public, the disillusionment that was brought about by the First World War. The impressionable man came to realize that the old ideas and beliefs rooted in religion and ethics had not helped to save man the catastrophe of World War I. As a result, after the war came to an end, Hemingway and other writers began to look for a new system of values, a system of values that would replace the old attitudes which they thought proved to be useless. The writers who adopted these new beliefs came to be known as the “lost generation.”

The “lost generation,” was a name instituted by Gertrude Stein and it signified the postwar generation and the literary movement produced by the young writers of the time (Unger 654). Their writing reflected their belief that “the only reality was that life is harsh” (Bryfonski 1874).

A great deal has been written about Ernest Hemingway’s distinctive style. Ever since he began writing in the 1920’s, he has been the subject of lavish praise and sometimes savage criticism. He has not been ignored.

To explain Hemingway’s style in a few paragraphs in such a manner as to satisfy those who have read his articles and books is almost impossible. It is a simple style, straight forward and modest. Hemingway’s prose is unadorned as a result of his abstaining from using adjectives as much as possible. He relates a story in the form of straight journalism, but because he is a master of transmitting emotion with out embellishing it, the product is even more enjoyable.

Source by Michael Cooper

Continue Reading
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.


SWISHAHOUSE | Screwed and Chopped | From South To North




Read Time:14 Minute, 5 Second

Swishahouse was founded in North Houston in 1997 by founder and CEO Michael “5000” Watts and OG Ron C as a response to the popularity of chopped and screwed music from Houston’s south side. The label began by distributing a mixtape series that featured chopped and screwed versions of R&B songs. Many of the current & former artists come from Acres Homes, Homestead and other neighborhoods on Houston’s Northside.

DJ Michael Watts

Welcome to the Month of Recognizing SWISHAHOUSE “unofficially” at least by Jestificated, where I will be talking about the Legendary unknown, known independent Label.

“Ya’ll Gonna Remember The Name”

“SWISHAHOUSE” hence the title of this post, I just wanted to make sure I remind Houstonians and the world that there is no debate that DJ Screw is hands down the pioneer, but Swishahouse was a major contender in the Southern Hip-Hop Genre of Chopped-n-Screwed Music as well, which respectfully was created by the Late Robert Earl Davis Jr. (or as many of us know him by D.J Screw). ???????

Part of the Swishahouse Click reppin at the Carshow (Paul Wall & Big Tiger)

Therefore, “we have no plex” as they say in the south about this and as a teenager, I recall primarily listening and going to the Swishahouse. Simply because, that was close to us (despite living in the northeast suburbs) #44 and #AcresHomes -is where the shop was located, making it a well known and reputable staple for the Northside.

Of course, the Screwed Up Records and Tape store is obviously iconic for several historic nostalgic reasons. However, it was far from me and my peeps. So for that reason, I can tell you the importance of D.J. Michael Watt’s, OG Ron C and their Hella-Roster of dynamic Freestyle Rappers only enhanced the brand as we know it.

No matter what your race or color or religion you were always welcome at the Swishahouse including my group of friends per the throwback car show pic below car show (Sorry, I’m not pictured in this one, I was taking the pic) Side-note- I believe I developed these black & white prints myself via KHS photo-journalism class in the darkroom…I did pretty good, right? Lol

So, just sit back and listen….However, to better understand you should definitely watch the Youtube video I have posted above, it was created this year May 2019 by “The Report” and it’s pretty dang good at explaining the whole (DJ SCREW, Rise, SUC, SWISHAHOUSE, NORTH vs SOUTH Rivalry, Lean, Death of Screw & Fat Pat, Mike Jones, and Camp Worldwide phenom, to the overall Historical Preservation of DJ Screw’s Legacy.

Young Slim Thug “Northside was Braids Southside was faded”

In addition to the fact that Screw created a whole new sub-genre of “Screwed-n-Chopped” Innovation. D.J. Michael Watts may have “adopted” this Slowed down technique from the Legendary Screw, but Watts not only served the Northside aka #Nawfside with a variety of specially crafted Artist’s who knew how to freestyle on beat and create unique names or tags that they would shout out over the mic.

So, it was a no brainer for Watts to continue carrying the torch respectfully, like a champ. After all, what would the Northside be like without Swishahouse and it’s entire camp?Swishahouse Artist would often take turns on the mic by jumping in on the beat to Freestyle (just as any coast in a freestyle) but something about Southern Freestyle flows ( similar to Lil Wayne on No Ceilings) striaight fire.

Regular Swishahouse fans, knew each Artists’ unique creative style from King Coopa aka Chamillionaire to Big Tiger back to Slim Thug, 50/50 Twins, Big Pic back to Paul Wall and etc.

Ludacris was the main event performing at the car show

If you really knew the Swishahouse camp, then you knew who was usually got on the track yelling, calm or was silly and had funny sh*t to say, basically like Paul Wall or one of my fave #CloverlandG’s aka Lil Flip -his freestyles were off the chain too. However, Lil Flip was not signed to Swishahouse, he was a feature/collabo just as SPM “South Park Mexican”.

SPM performing #Dopehouse Records

One thing about Paul Wall, was def a rare breed, he spits bars like no other “including White, Black or Hispanic dudes” he basically annihilated the freestyle session and that goes to this day, he can freestyle onsite, but he is more geared toward his Grillz buisness with Johnny Dang.

Artist Freestyle Tags:

Paul Wall was known for starting out a majority of his freestyles with “What it do? It’s Paul Wall” and he would always have something too funny to say about “I can catch Boppers…. or he has more carrots in his mouth than the HEB produce section lol” his flow always hit on the beat and it always went hard, but he was white and sounded so damn black.’ People tripped out, especially when Watts screwed and chopped his voice on the track. Paul Wall grew up in the Acres Homes /Homestead area “if my mind serves me correct?” the area is predominately a black neighborhood on the Northside of Houston.

So, I guess you could rightfully say that he was a product of his beautiful environment, which only enabled him to showcase his mouthpiece even more than ever. Paul is definitely the Peoples Champ down here and our Eminem, but Nah he’s himself and no one else. I will be sure to throw some of Paul Wall’s his freestyles up on the page/post for you all to judge ( especially all my UK/ Germany & African Hip Hop Heads) Check it out, while it’s also just good reminder of nostalgic times for the States and H-town.

The Color Changing Click

Then Chamillionaire and his brand of being the “Color Changing Lizard” wearing a Lizard chain in various colors of diamonds, once he moved up the ladder, often coining him and Paul Wall as the Color Changing Click, they were an iconic duo.

Chamillionaire and Paul Wall at 99 or 2000 Car Show for Swishahouse. Cham is throwing up the 44 in the background to me #Klassik.

As you can somewhat see from a good 2 decades ago in the photo above that I took ( Chamillionaire is Throwing up-the #44 for Acres Homes reppin the Northside) Nothing gang related, it was just as anybody reps there hood or college that they attended. Meanwhile, Paul is just “posted up” on alert, while at the Car Show where they performed on the side with big acts like Ludacris etc. I will go through the roster, below. I don’t have enough time to cover every individual Artist’s specialty but I will try to showcase as much as I can over this month.

LiL Keke Da Don:

LIL Keke

However, LIL KEKE da Don will definitely be featured in between the end of this month and next month, he is my all-time favorite on the mic. While he also stems from being an OG member of the original SUC (Screwed Up Click) with DJ Screw, on the Southside…and he did create the song “Southside” a Texas Legend Keke is, he always remained independent and lowkey but his freestyle ability is the most effortless and can go for several minutes on a song without writing lyrics and reading them. So the fact that he took his talents to Swishahouse after all of the North-South rivalries while still refusing to go mainstream, well that tells me everything I need to know about an Artist.

Funny thing is, I recall seeing Lil Keke at the prior Drake concert on my way out in the hallway, and I noticed his complexion, but heard his voice and saw his stature – I so badly wanted to just go up to him but then, I got cold feet, out of everyone that I have ever met (celebrity wise) I would have never thought my nerves would be so high, but that just shows you how I view Lil Keke and my respect for him as well.

The Chopped and Screwed Effect:

Including H-towns Very Own “adopted” Drake and “Native-born” Travis Scott by paying great homage to the Late-Greats specifically in Music Videos such as HYFR, Drakes Concerts have been doing so, and you can catch it in his various lyrical While Travis Scott is literally “All The RAGE” he too has done the most as far as showing love in his prior Albums specifically and collaboratively the music video “Sicko Mode” for his #Astroworld Album….and with leg II of his Astro-Festival right around the corner, ain’t no tellin…but just make sure you, “Put Some Respect On My Blog, When You Read This or Simply Bounce.

” I think it’s incredibly important to recognize those who have paved the way and continue to carry the torch, while we always show great respect & appreciation to the innovators who have passed before us, which are my thoughts exactly on why we need to recognize SWISHAHOUSE as a relentless source and underground southern label who kept the chopped n screw legacy going, specifically D.J.Michael Watts.

The Method of Chopping & Screwing:

“The technique of Chopped and screwed music slow a song down to around 60 to 70 beats per minute. While keeping the same song spinning on the opposite turntable, the DJ cuts back and forth, using techniques such as scratching, stop time and repetition. While aka known as Hopping and Screwing, a DJing technique invented by Houston pioneer DJ Screw in the early 90s that pitches compositions down is about feeling. Remixing a song in this way changes its texture; it makes the tones richer but also deeper and darker.

Comprehensive History

In Houston, a different approach of slowing music down, rather than speeding it up, developed. It is unknown when DJ Screw definitively created “screwed and chopped” music: Screw said he started slowing music down in 1990 and also in Tulsa, Oklahoma, DJ Dinero And DJ Z-Nasty helped popularize chopped and screwed music in the Mid South.[3] There is no debate, however, that DJ Screw invented the music style.”[4] He discovered that dramatically reducing the pitch of a record gave a mellow, heavy sound that emphasized lyrics to the point of almost storytelling.

D.J. Screw The Innovator & Creator

After messing around with the sound for a while Screw started making full length “Screw Tapes”. At first, the music was only referred to as “screw music”, was limited to the South Side of Houston, and was seen as laid-back driving music. As Screw’s tapes started to gain popularity he started selling his tapes for around $10.[5] Screw was known to feature some of Houston’s most renowned rappers from the South Side. This eventually led to the formation of the Screwed Up Click.


In the mid-1990s, chopped and screwed music started to move to the north side of Houston by way of DJ Michael “5000” Watts, and later OG RON C.[1] It wasn’t long until a rivalry between north and south Houston started over who were the “originators” and who were the “adopters”. Michael “5000” Watts always gave credit to DJ Screw as the originator of chopped and screwed music, which is he calls the genre “screwed and chopped”. In the late 1990s, with the help of P2P groups such as Napster, chopped and screwed music spread to a much wider audience. RIP DJ SCREWOn November 16, 2000, DJ Screw died from a lethal combination of codeine and alcohol. Shortly after the passing of Screw, screwed and chopped music spread all over the southern United States

The Swishahouse Series Includes The Following:

  • All Freestyles
  • Final Chapter
  • Before da Kappa
  • After da Kappa
  • Choppin Em Up
  • Fuck Action
  • Straight To Tha Room FKA Fuck Action
  • The Day Hell Broke Loose
  • Let Your Nutz Hang”
  • Rollin’ Strap
  • Paper Chase
  • Blow One

(However, I feel like I’m missing so many more)

Mike Jones Who?

A song that originally appeared on the compilation album The Day Hell Broke Loose 2, Mike Jones‘ “Still Tippin’“, achieved mainstream success in 2004. The single would go on to be certified Platinum by the RIAA. This led to Swishahouse signing a national distribution deal with Asylum Records. Jones released his major-label debut, Who Is Mike Jones?, on Swishahouse/Warner Bros. in April 2005; the album was certified Platinum by the RIAA, for selling over a million copies in the United States of America, that June.[1

The Swishahouse Effect

Aftermath A&R Angelo Sanders said that the great advantage to independents like Swishahouse is that, “They’re able to get their product out on the streets to specific regions at a greater speed than a major … They’re able to flood that whole Texas market with a product before the majors are able to notice what is going on out there.”

A New Day…

Lil Keke the Don arises bringing the SUC Freestyle Talent to Swishahouse while collaborating to bring Unity to the entire Houston Rap scene.


Paul Wall‘s major-label debut, The Peoples Champ, on Swishahouse/Atlantic, was released on September 2005, eventually topping the Billboard 200. Before embarking on his rap career and while still at school, Wall had worked in the Swishahouse office.

Noteable Infulences and Timeline of Chopped & Screwed Utilization:

In 2001, 8Ball & MJG released a screwed version of their album Space Age 4 Eva (2000). The mixing was handled by Michael “5000” Watts of the famed Swishahouse, being the first screwed and chopped release on a major label.

In 2003, David Banner released a screwed and chopped version of his album Mississippi: The Album, being a first by an artist from Mississippi.

In 2005, Three 6 Mafia released a chopped and screwed version of their album Most Known Unknown, being one of the first albums to be chopped and screwed in commercial light as the album sold over a million copies. The mixing was handled by Michael “5000” Watts of the famed Swishahouse

Also in 2005, the first screwed and chopped albums were added to the iTunes Storecatalog[failed verification] and in 2010, a Chopped n Screwed app by The Chopstars called ‘ChopNotSlop’ was released on the App Store[7][third-party source needed]

In 2006, Chamillionaire‘s The Sound of Revenge (Screwed & Chopped) by OG Ron C became the most successful screwed and chopped album to date.

Also in 2006, Houston based music label Dope House Records and Swishahouse teamed up to release South Park Mexican‘s ninth album, When Devils Strike.[5] A chopped and screwed version was also released.

In 2009, Drake (musician)‘s November 18th by DJ Screw became the really well known since he had signed with “Young Money Records” using the sample of DJ Screw later to be a famous artist.

Director Barry Jenkins wrote the script of Moonlight to a Slim K chopped and screwed remix of Channel Orange by Frank Ocean, titled Channel Purple.[9]

In 2018, and present-day; Travis Scott’s #SickoMode embracing the culture and #Astroworld by showing love to DJ Screw & Big Hawk, by sampling their sounds (chopped and screwed) it just shows how much love and understanding the world has for not only DJ Screw, but let’s always “Remember The Name” as they would often say on their mixtape CDs from way back.

Swishahouse History is Made:

Swishahouse has archives hosted by Rice University‘s Center for Engaged Research and Collaborative Learning, a center under the Kinder Institute for Urban Research. The physical materials are hosted in the Woodson Research Center at the university’s Fondren Library.[6]

Current Roster includes:

Former Artist

Check back for more highlights and #StayStreaming #Swishahouse

All sources/References and facts cited via links below:

The Report via Youtube


Jestificated Personal Archive black and white car show photos of 98-2000

*Next Month #Jestificated will be of covering All #TravisScott #DJScrew #BigHawk #BigMoe & of course #Astroworld for #Astrofest.

Source link

Continue Reading


Chris Brown is being investigated in battery case, after slapping a woman



Chris Brown has finally been able to stay out of legal woes lately but now, that is changing. According to TMZ, he is reportedly involved in a battery case, which occurred this past weekend.

This report states that this victim, a woman, told police that the R&B star smacked her head so hard, that part of her weave fell off. This reportedly went down at Brown’s San Fernando Valley home, in California. Police filed the report as this home, and wrote Brown down as a suspect.

The woman is also said to have no injuries, aside from that a large part of her weave was damaged. in addition to this, police haven’t made an arrest at the moment. The City Attorney will also likely be investigating incident. The worst possible scenario for Brown here, would be catching a misdemeanor charge.

Brown has also bed on fire over the last year in regards to his music. He and Young Thug put out their collab “Slime & B” album last May, which contained the hit single, “Go Crazy.” That peaked at number three on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, and is 2x platinum in the US. In February, the remix was released, which also featured Future, Lil Durk, and Latto.

Source link

Continue Reading


#22 TRAP-PRODUCERS Who Are Dominating The “Beat-Making-Game” in 2019’ #JESTIFICATED



Okay, so let me just say that I couldn’t agree more with the #Top10 featured Producer write-up of 2018-2019 by QREWCIAL.

“From Tay Keith to Murda Beatzwe have a more in-depth and closer look at not only QREWCIAL’s

The post #22 TRAP-PRODUCERS Who Are Dominating The “Beat-Making-Game” in 2019’ #JESTIFICATED appeared first on JESTIFICATED | HIP-HOP MUSIC.

Source link

Continue Reading