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The Tragic Death Of A Jellyfish (Galaxy)



A Jellyfish galaxy is an exotic type of doomed and disrupted galaxy normally observed within clusters, which are immense structures that host anywhere from hundreds to thousands of sparkling galactic constituents. Indeed, Jellyfish have been detected inhabiting a number of galaxy clusters, and they are spectacular objects that undergo a dramatic sea-change, as they crash down through the dense core of their host cluster at supersonic speeds, displaying brilliant starbursts along a glittering tail of gas. In July 2019, a team of astronomers announced that they had observed first-hand the sinister role that an excited supermassive black hole was playing in the “murder” of an exotic Jellyfish galaxy. The supermassive heart of darkness, that lurks at the center of the Jellyfish dubbed JO201, is tearing away gas and hurling it out into space. In so doing, the black hole is speeding up the tragic quenching of baby star-birth. This means that the black hole is in the process of “murdering” the doomed exotic galaxy.

Galaxy clusters are the largest known gravitationally bound structures in the Universe. Indeed, galaxy clusters were believed to be the largest known structures in the Universe until as recently as the 1980s, when galactic superclusters were first discovered. One of the most important attributes of galaxy clusters is the intracluster medium (ICM), which is composed of heated gas floating around in the space between galaxies (intergalactic space). The ICM usually has peak temperatures between 2-15 Kelvin, and these temperatures are dependent on the total mass of the cluster. Smaller collections of galaxies are usually referred to as groups, rather than clusters. The galaxy groups and clusters can themselves join together to create superclusters.

It is commonly thought that most, if not all, large galaxies hold a voracious supermassive black hole in their hearts. These gravitational monsters can weigh-in at millions to billions of times solar-mass, and their collections of Jellyfish galaxies are characterized by ram pressure stripping off the gas from the victimized galaxy by the ICM. Ram pressure is exerted on a body traveling through a fluid medium, caused by relative bulk motion of the fluid instead of random thermal motion. It causes a drag force to be exerted on the body.

Voracious Supermassive Black Holes Feed On Jellyfish

In 2017, observations of Jellyfish galaxies with the European Southern Observatory’s (ESO’s) Very Large Telescope (VLT) revealed a previously unknown way that supermassive black holes eat dinner. The mechanism that forms the characteristic tentacles of gas and new-born stars (protostars) that inspired astronomers to give Jellyfish galaxies their nickname, also makes it possible for the gas to reach the central regions of the galaxies. In this central region, where the hungry black hole lurks in sinister secret, the infalling banquet shines brilliantly as it tumbles to its doom.

An Italian-led team of astronomers used the MUSE (Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) instrument on the VLT at ESO’s Paranal Observatory in Chile to study how gas can be torn from galaxies. The scientists focused on extreme examples of exotic Jellyfish galaxies inhabiting nearby galaxy clusters, whose “tentacles” of material extend for tens of thousands of light-years beyond their galactic discs.

The “tentacles” of Jellyfish are formed in galaxies by ram pressure stripping. Their mutual gravitational attraction causes galaxies to plummet at high speed into clusters, where they then meet up with a searing-hot, dense gas. This gas acts like a ferocious wind that forces tails of gas out of the galaxy’s disc. This powerful wind also triggers starbursts within it.

Seven Jellyfish galaxies were observed for this study, and six of them were found to host a supermassive black hole in their hearts, feeding vorciously on the surrounding gas. This fraction is surprisingly high, because among galaxies in general the fraction is less than one in ten.

“The strong link between ram pressure stripping and active black holes was not predicted and has never been reported before. It seems that the central black hole is being fed because some of the gas, rather than being removed, reaches the galaxy center,” explained team leader Dr. Bianca Poggianti in an August 16, 2017 ESO Press Release. Dr. Poggianti is of the INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padua in Italy.

A long-standing mystery is why only a small percentage of supermassive black holes lurking in the centers of galaxies are active. Since these gravitational beasts inhabit almost all galaxies, why are only a few accreting matter and shining brightly? The result of this 2017 study is important because it reveals a previously unknown mechanism that feeds a central black hole.

“These MUSE observations suggest a novel mechanism for gas to be funnelled towards the black hole’s neighborhood. This result is important because it provides a new piece in the puzzle of the poorly understood connections between supermassive black holes and their host galaxies,” commented Dr. Yara Jaffe in the August 16, 2017 ESO Press Release. Dr. Jaffee is an ESO fellow who contributed to the paper.

These observations are part of a much more extensive investigation of many more Jellyfish galaxies that is currently in progress.

“This survey, when completed, will reveal how many, and which, gas-rich galaxies entering clusters go through a period of increased activity at their cores. A long-standing puzzle in astronomy has been to understand how galaxies form and change in our expanding and evolving Universe. Jellyfish galaxies are a key to understanding galaxy evolution as they are galaxies caught in the middle of a dramatic transformation,” Dr. Poggianti added.

The Tragic Death Of Jellyfish JO201

The tragic fate of the Jellyfish galaxy JO201 was revealed as part of the study targeting 114 Jellyfish galaxies by the GASP (GAs Stripping Phenomena) collaboration, an international team of astronomers led by Dr. Poggianti.

In order to explore the structure of the Jellyfish galaxies in 3D and calculate the timescales of their transformation, Dr. Callum Bellhouse of the University of Birmingham in the U.K. created interactive models that can also be experienced in virtual reality. Dr. Bellhouse presented the new findings at the Royal Astronomical Society’s (RAS) National Astronomy Meeting held in Lancaster, U.K. on July 3, 2019.

According to the new findings, JO201 was originally a spiral galaxy like our own pin-wheel-shaped, starlit Milky Way. However, the ill-fated JO201 has been plunging through the massive galaxy cluster named Abell 85 at supersonic speeds for approximately a billion years. As this doomed Jellyfish zips along the line of sight, its tentacles appear foreshortened in the model. However the team of astronomers estimate that the tentacles actually trail 94 parsecs behind JO201–which is approximately three times the diameter of our large Galaxy.

“A galaxy sustains itself by constantly forming new stars from gas, so understanding how gas flows into and out of a galaxy helps us learn how it evolves. The example of JO201 shows how the balance tips towards then away from star-formation as it plunges through the galaxy cluster and faces increasingly extreme stripping of its gas,” Dr. Bellhouse explained in a July 3, 2019 RAS Press Release.

JO201’s sea change from a spiral into a Jellyfish galaxy caused a short-lived increase in baby star birth, as a result of the ram-pressure stripping process. Compressed clouds of gas collapsed, and then created a ring of stars in the disk of the galaxy. Within the tentacles, dense blobs of gas condensed like rainclouds on Earth. This triggered the formation of bright new fiery baby stars in the galaxy’s wake.

Alas, over the past few hundred million years, the active and voracious supermassive black hole seems to have torn away the gas, thus leaving a large void around the center of the galaxy’s disc. The team of astronomers propose that the ram-pressure stripping may have forced gas into the central regions of the galaxy, where it caused the black hole to blast out material. This triggered a shock wave that left a tattle-tale cavity behind.

“An important balancing act occurs between processes which either boost or diminish the star formation rate in Jellyfish galaxies. In the case of JO201, the central black hole becomes excited by the ram-pressure stripping and starts to throw out gas. This means that the galaxy is being hollowed out from the inside, as well as torn away from the outside,” Dr. Bellhouse explained in the July 3, 2019 RAS Press Release.

JO201 is, so far, a unique example of a supermassive black hole and ram-pressure stripping in quenching star formation in a Jellyfish galaxy. Studying these curious objects gives us an insight into the complex processes that galaxies experience,” Dr. Bellhouse added.

Source by Judith E Braffman-Miller

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Top 3 Benefits of Using a Beat Making Software



If you are musically inclined and would like to make your own kind of beats then a beat making software is the best thing for you. There are many distinct beats that you could play around with. It would be a great advantage for you to create your own beats because doing so could make a huge positive effect on your career path of being a beat making musician.

Advantages of Using Beat Making Software to Create Your Own Beats

Times when beats were created solely through musical instruments have already passed. This is the generation that’s already conquered by computers and software. You are now able make your own beats using beat making software.

The following are its benefits:

Easy To Use

Years ago those who produced music used big time hardware such as Ensoniq ASR10 and Akai MPC to create their own brand of beats. These types of musical hardware did not let the producers see every angle of the beats they produced because of their limited use. With beat making software the music producers can easily quantize and enhance the instrumentals they create.

Sample beats can also be created using Propellerhead Recycle, which is a software that allows the producer to chop or divide sections of music so that they can be modified easily through the midi keyboard. You could even save your work and re-edit easily.

Less Expensive

Music hardware is very expensive and tends to range from $2,000 to $5,000. Proven brands for keyboards like Yamaha Motif, Korg Triton and Roland Fantom can only be purchased by those who can really afford them. For less than half of what you would pay, you can buy reliable brands such as Cakewalk Sonar or Ableton Live and start making your own beats.

Virtual instruments are what musicians use with these software programs. Virtual instruments are very popular now and have been used in TV shows and films. The process is much faster and much more affordable.


In the past the only way for you to make your own beats was by being talented and financially capable of buying some studio time or your own studio. But the personal computer made a drastic change and gave an opportunity to aspiring unknown musicians that wanted to make their own beats. Soon enough powerful beat making software came out for computers that granted access and the ability for musicians to make their own beats.

How Can You Use Beat Making Software?

When you talk about creating your own beats, it can be quite intimidating. There can be lots of technical terms that you have to know and understand. It’s a relief that many experts have recognized the need for a beginner beat making guide on how to create beats to help people learn the basics and hone their talents.

This makes it so much easier to go through the process of making beats. One of the best beat making software products that you can get your hands on is the DubTurbo. It is extremely fast and very easy to use. Even beginners can produce expert level beats using the DubTurbo.

Source by Leury Pichardo

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Latest Sony Ericsson W300i Review Posted



Since Sony Ericsson first introduced its Walkman cell phone line last year, music-friendly phones have had mixed success in the United States. Though they’re lauded by users and critics alike, together with us, U.S. carriers, haven’t clamored to include the handsets in their lineups. Sure, Cingular offers the W600i, but that’s the exception rather than the rule. Sony Ericsson no doubt has taken notice of this discrepancy, which may be a reason behind the Sony Ericsson W300i. While previous Walkman phones were packed with the most expensive features, the W300i aims to be a low-end Walkman phone. Although you still get Bluetooth, a VGA camera, and the full range of Walkman music compatibility, the on the whole effect is a step down from models like the Sony Ericsson W810i. We weren’t crazy about some design elements, but call caliber was good, and we commend Sony Ericsson for bringing mobile music to the masses. No carrier was set at the time of this review, so the GSM handset will run you $299.

So far, Sony Ericsson has stuck to swivel and candy bar designs for its Walkman phones, so we were glad to see the company roll out a flip phone in the series. From the exterior it’s quite elegant; our version came in black, but You can get it in white too. It doesn’t bear much of a resemblance to the company’s few other flip phones; we like the clean lines, the looped antenna, and the textured covering on the bottom of the front flap. The phone is moderately compact at 3.5 by 1.8 by 1.0 inches, so it’s easily put in most pockets. It’s also quite light for its size at 3.3 ounces, but the trade-off is that the all round construction feels just a bit flimsy. We didn’t have any problems when using the phone, but it felt almost too light in our hands.

In the center of the front flap is the postage stamp-size outside screen. Although monochrome, it’s quite bright and displays the usual information, not to mention the date, time, battery life, signal strength, and caller ID (where accessible). you are not able to change the backlighting time, but a quick flick of the volume rocker will activate the display for inspection. Above the screen is the VGA camera lens and a self-portrait mirror (but no flash), while the speaker is on the top of the rear face. The aforementioned volume control is on the left spine along with a control for activating the music player and playing and pausing music. The infrared port is on the right spine, while the connection port for the charger, the wired headset, and the USB cable is on the bottom of the handset. One design flaw of the new Walkman phone connection port is that you can’t connect two cables at once.

Inside the phone you’ll find the 1.75-inch (128×160) inside display. Sony Ericsson always does a good job with its displays, and the W300i is no exception. Radiant and vivid, it displays all 262,144 colors beautifully and is perfect for viewing photos and videos, playing games, and scrolling through the user-friendly menus. You can change the brightness but not the font size or backlighting time.

On the other hand, Sony Ericsson doesn’t have a great track record with navigation controls and keypad buttons. While it made positive strides with the W810i, the W300i shows a slip back to bad habits. The five-way toggle is big and doubles as a shortcut to four user-defined functions, but it’s flush with the surface of the phone and thus takes time to get used to. The flat soft keys, clear button, and back control are spaced far from the toggle, but they’re quite small given the phone’s size. Also, while this isn’t a bad thing, hold in mind that most Sony Ericsson phones do not have dedicated Talk and End keys.

The keypad buttons are worse, on the other hand. Designed similar to overlapping circles, they are flat with the surface of the phone and slippery, which made for a few misdials. Enen more, they don’t lend themselves to quick texting. On the upside, they have a bright orange backlight. Below them are a dedicated power control and a button for activating the Walkman player, but these are much too little. The Memory Stick Micro slot is under the plastic battery cover, but thankfully, you don’t have to remove the battery, to get at it.

The W300i has a 1,000-contact phone book with room in each entry for five phone numbers, e-mail and Web addresses, business and home street addresses, a birthday date, and notes (the SIM card holds an additional 250 names). You can classify contacts into groups, pair them with a photo for caller ID, or attach them one of 28 (40-chord) polyphonic ring tones. Support for MP3 ring tones is present as well, but be informed that caller ID images do not appear on the outter display. Other features include a vibrate mode, text and multimedia messaging, voice dialing, a calendar, a task list, a notepad, a calculator, a timer, a stopwatch, and a code memo for storing passwords and other secure information. There’s also a recorder for both voice memos and calls; length is sparing by on hand memory. Although the W300i is considered an entry-level Walkman phone, it still comes with a pretty good number of business-friendly applications. Inside you’ll find a speakerphone, PC syncing for contacts and calendar appointments, a newsreader for accessing RSS feeds, USB cable support, and full Bluetooth for not only connecting to a headset but also for wirelessly exchanging files and electronic business cards. And like many other Sony Ericssons You can use the phone as a modem and use the Bluetooth feature as a remote control to connect with other Bluetooth devices.

The W300i’s Walkman music player doesn’t differ much from the previous handsets in the series. It supports a broad range of formats, inclusive of MP3, MP4, 3GP, AAC, and WAV files. Opening the player takes you directly to the main menu, where You can organize music by artist, track name, or playlist. Settings consist of album/song shuffle and loop, Sony’s Mega Bass, and an equalizer. Toggling between the cell phone and the music player is seamless, as music automatically stops when you receive a call. Hang up and mash the dedicated music key, and your song picks up from the point you left off. There’s an airplane mode that lets you listen to your tunes in flight with the cell phone powered off, and You can minimize the player while using other functions. There are stereo speakers also but still no stereo Bluetooth profile.

Music capacity is sparing by the accessible memory. Internal space is somewhat tiny–just 20MB–and have in mind, that since it’s shared with other applications, your actual storage space may be less. We promote investing in a Memory Stick Micro for extra space; our test phone came with a 512MB card. Getting music on the phone is relatively easy. As well as using the included USB cable and Disc2Phone software, You are able to send tunes via e-mail, a multimedia message, Bluetooth, or infrared port. You also get an FM radio with 20 presets, While you must use it with a headset, which acts as an antenna. You can set it to automatically scan and program Radio Data System info from stations that digitally broadcast their names and call letters, and You are able to use the radio as an alarm clock.

Since the W300i is meant for a more or less average cell phone user, Sony Ericsson included a VGA shooter instead of a megapixel model. You are able to take pictures in three resolutions (640×480, 320×240, 160×120) and choose from a variety of editing options, together with four color effects, a night mode, two quality settings, a self-timer, 19 fun frames, and a brightness control. There’s also a digital zoom, which varies by the pictures size–at the lowest resolution it’s 4X, but it’s not on hand at the highest resolution. Other special picture effects include a burst mode for taking four shots in rapid order and a nifty panorama choice. For audio effects, You are able to choose from four shutter sounds, but there’s no silent choice. The camcorder takes MPEG-4 videos in two resolutions (176×144 and 128×96) with sound and offers a comparable set of editing alternatives. Clip length is capped at two minutes for multimedia messages; otherwise length is sparing by the available memory.

Although we realize the camera is a VGA, picture quality was rather inadequate. Shots were blurry and grainy and colors washed out. Likewise, video quality was run-of-the-mill. Still, the W300i does offer a few creative applications for the amateur photographer. With Photo DJ, You can add one of six fun frames; inverse the shot’s orientation; and use various image effects such as brightness, contrast, tint control, and photo marking. There’s also a Video DJ, and if that is not satisfying, more picture-, video-, and multimedia-editing options are on the software CD, along with QuickTime, Adobe Photoshop Album Starter Edition, and a multimedia message composer. Moving photos and videos off the phone is painless. You are able to send them in a multimedia message, import them via Bluetooth, or the infrared port, or use the included USB cable and software.

You can personalize the W300i with an array of themes, wallpaper, and screensavers. As always, You are able to purchase more choices and ring tones from Sony Ericsson via the WAP 2.0 wireless Web browser. Alternatively, the phone comes with a Music DJ application for making your own ring tones and a quirky application called Music Match that plays guitar chords and piano notes. Though it was fun, it wasn’t tremendously proficient. Gamers can enjoy three Java (J2ME) titles, Neopets, QuadraPop, and PuzzleSlider, with additional titles accessible for purchase.

We tested the quad-band, dual-mode (GSM 850/900/1800/1900; EDGE) Sony Ericsson W300i world phone in San Francisco using Cingular’s service. Call quality was quite good with remarkable clarity and volume. We had no trouble getting a signal and rarely were met with static or interference. Callers reported the same conditions, and they could make out us under most conditions. Speakerphone caliber was slightly worse–voices sounded hollow, but it was fair as a whole. We connected to the Plantronics Explorer 320 Bluetooth headset and was met with admirable call caliber too. The EDGE connection was sufficiently speedy for transferring small files.

Using the included Disc2Phone software and USB cable, which also charges the phone, we tried loading music onto our W300i. transfer time was relatively slow at 30 seconds for a 5MG song, so you’ll have to be patient for a large import. As a whole, on the other hand, the software is easy to install and exhibited few of the quirks we found on previous models. And another thing, the phone didn’t switch off automatically when we disconnected the USB cable. Music quality was on a par with that of other Walkman phones: clear and crisp, Though one transferred song had some very minor hiccups. The W300i won’t replace a stand-alone MP3 player, but it does the job admirably for short stints.

Our one real disapproval was that the phone had a tendency to freeze during normal operation, such as when we were going through a menu or when we were using the USB connection. More than one time, we had to restart, but more often, the phone unfroze after a couple seconds.

The W300i has a rated talk time of 9 hours and a presumed standby time of 16.5 days. Our talk-time test result came in a little short at 8 hours, but that’s still respectable. According to FCC radiation tests, the Sony Ericsson W300i has a digital SAR rating of 1.42 watts per kilogram.

Source by Shi Stevens

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Part 2 of 3 — Rhythms



We all know that practicing passages can be challenging. In the second video (see above) of this series, Mimi explores rhythms and how they can help you master passages more easily. Mimi also discusses how you can use rhythms to your advantage for developing a more deliberate and even tempo. 


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