When two sailboats meet there are three rules to follow:
1. The boat on the port tack gives way to the boat on the starboard tack. 2. When on the same tack, the windward boat gives way to the leeward boat. 3. The overtaking vessel keeps clear of the slower vessel.
Piloting- Deviation and Variation
There are two types of Poles; the Geographic North and South Poles, also called True North and True South, and the Magnetic North and South Poles. The Geographic poles are stationary. The earth is a big magnet with magnetic lines of force running from the magnetic north pole to the magnetic south pole. The magnetic pole is located in northern Canada; somewhat west of the Geographic Pole. It’s location changes over long periods of time.
Variation is the angle between the magnetic north and the true north. This is indicated by a compass when it is free of any nearby magnetic influences. A magnetized pointer, or needle, that is allowed to spin freely, will point to the magnetic north pole. On a boat compass, this needle is situated in the middle of a ring which shows 360 degrees. Now matter in which direction the boat heads, the compass still points to Magnetic North.
Boats with lots of metal have their own magnetic fields and the compass may respond to it and be pulled somewhat away from the direction of magnetic north. When this happens, it is called compass deviation and needs to be compensated for. This can be done by installing small internal magnets in the compass, or, you can make up a deviation chart for your boat and refer to it when figuring out what course to steer by your compass. This especially applies to the small boat sailor who won’t be using a mounted compass with magnets.
Often you will be given a course to steer from one place to another in true directions. This means that you will have to convert this to magnetic in order to steer this course with your compass. There is a very consistent and simple rule to follow when going from true to magnetic. In the Eastern US and Canada, to go from a true course to a magnetic course, you add a west variation. To go from a magnetic course to a true course, you subtract a west variation. In the Western US and Canada, to go from a true course to a magnetic course, you subtract an east variation To go from a magnetic course to a true course, you add an east variation.
Piloting-Navigation performed using visual references such as aids to navigation.
Aids to Navigation-Established markers on land or sea that aid sailors to avoid danger and fix their position.
Bearing-The direction of an object to an observer, such as a buoy or other boat. Chart-A nautical map.
Nun- A buoy that is not lit but numbered, red and pointed, and always on the starboard side when returning from seaward, port side when going out.
Can- A buoy that is not lit but numbered, green and flat, and always on the port side when returning from seaward, starboard side when going out.