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Native Drums - How to Tune Your Native Indian Drum - HIP HOP MINUTE
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Native Drums – How to Tune Your Native Indian Drum



Tuning Native Drums

If your drum tone sounds flat and dull then it needs tuning, before we go into the “How to Tune” part, lets discuss factors that affect rawhide. Rawhide by its nature shrinks or expands depending on certain conditions. In cold, moist and humid weather or these types of environments rawhide expands. In hot and dry weather or when exposed to a heat source rawhide shrinks.

Now, armed with this knowledge about rawhide we can use it to our advantage to tune our drum to that perfect tone we want. When your drum tone is flat and dull and the rawhide appears to be loose then you need to get the rawhide to tighten. We now know that exposing our drum to a heat source shrinks the rawhide.

Warning! Over exposing your drum to heat can lead to permanent damage. Please re-read that again, because whatever heat source you use it’s important to know this. So don’t place your drum in front or next to a heat source and walk away and forget about it. Ok, now that we have got that out of the way let us look at some different methods we can use to heat our drum which causes the rawhide to shrink and gives us a better tune/tone from our drum.

Methods to tune your Drum

  • Hair dryer – the quickest and easiest way to tune a drum. Start in the centre of the drum and work your way towards the edges. Should only take a few minutes.
  • Heat lamp – Place the drum in front of the heat lamp, once again should only take a few minutes. Periodically play your drum to test the tone.
  • Heater or fire place– Using this method it’s important not to place the drum too close to the heat. If it’s too hot for your hand then you need to move the drum further away.
  • Campfire – The preferred method of Native Indians to tune their drums. Most of us have seen the image of Native Indians dancing around the fire beating on their drums. Just make sure you do not place your drum too close to the naked flames.

Each of the above methods work well, just make sure you do not over do it. By that I mean, leave the drum in front or too close of the heat source for too long. If you do, over time the rawhide will become over stretched and eventually loose its natural elastic quality.

Also, if you over do it the rawhide can shrink too much and damage the timber frame of the drum. Regardless of the method you use, test the tune of the drum as you go through the process by playing the drum until you are happy with the tone. Providing it’s done correctly you can repeatedly use these methods without affecting the life span of the drum.

So far we have talked about ways to tune your drum if it sounds flat and dull. What if you have the opposite problem? On a hot dry day the drum may sound very high pitched; in this case the best way to get the rawhide to loosen is by spraying or sprinkling small amounts of water on the rawhide.

Start from the edgers of the drum and work your way to the middle. Let it rest for a few minutes then test the tone of the drum. Keep repeating until you have the desired tone. Avoid wetting the timber frame of the drum and just like the heating method don’t over do it. In fact use this method if you do over heat your drum to loosen the rawhide.

Other factors that affect the tune and tone of Native American Drums.

Besides environmental conditions there are other factors that affect the tone and pitch of Native Indian drums. They are:

  • Size of the drum. Generally the larger the drum size, that includes the rawhide surface area, timber frame width and depth, the deeper the tone and more the tone resinates. Small drums tend to have a more sharp higher pitch. Although other factors come into effect which can affect the tune, tone and pitch, regardless of the size.
  • Rawhide thickness. In my experience rawhide thickness has the biggest effect on the tone of drums, particularly “Hoop Drums”. The thicker the hide the deeper the tone and pitch. Thinner hides have a higher sharp pitch. So you can have a large drum with a thin hide which produces a high sharp pitch tune or a smaller drum with a thick hide that producers a deep long tune.

These are all important factors you need to take into consideration when selecting your drum.

Source by Beatrice Polimeni

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Astronomers Have Finally Found Our Galaxy’s Missing Sister



The first galaxies formed very long ago, when our almost 14 billion year old Universe was less than a billion years of age. Our own Milky Way Galaxy likewise is very ancient–a large starlit pinwheel twirling in space that is thought to be about 13.6 billion years old–give or take 8 million years. Indeed, the oldest known star in our Galaxy is 13.7 billion years old. Altogether, the Milky Way is thought to host approximately 300 billion stars. But, even though our Galaxy has many galactic neighbors, one of its enormous starlit siblings has gone missing, disappearing mysteriously billions of years ago. In July 2018, astronomers at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, announced that they have finally found our Milky Way’s long lost sibling. Alas, the team of scientists have deduced that our current closest large galactic neighbor shredded and cannibalized this massive sister of our Milky Way two billion years ago.

Even though it was mostly devoured and shredded, this massive sister galaxy left behind, as a lingering tattle-tale relic of its former existence, a trail of evidence revealing that it was once here. This rich trail of evidence is composed of an almost invisible halo of stars that is larger than our Milky Way’s largest spiral neighbor, the Andromeda galaxy itself. The evidence also consists of an elusive stream of stars, as well as a separate mysterious and enigmatic galaxy named M32. Discovering and observing this partly devoured doomed galaxy will help astronomers understand how disk galaxies like our Milky Way evolve and manage to survive large and violent mergers wth other enormous galaxies.

Our Galaxy And Its General Neighborhood

The group of galaxies that includes our Milky Way is appropriately named the Local Group, and it hosts more than 54 galaxies, most of which are relatively small dwarfs. Astronomers have predicted that sometime between 1 billion and 1 trillion years from now, all of the galactic constituents of the Local Group will crash into one another, and these collisions and resulting mergers will create a single enormous galaxy. The gravitational center of the Local Group today is situated between our Milky Way and Andromeda, and the entire group sports the impressive diameter of about 3.1 million parsecs. It also displays a binary (dumbell) distribution. The Local Group itself is a constituent of the larger Virgo Supercluster that may, in turn, be a part of the recently discovered Laniakea Supercluster.

The unfortunate, decimated galaxy, dubbed M32p, was once the third-largest member of the Local Group, after our Milky Way and Andromeda. Using supercomputer models, Dr. Richard D’Souza and Dr. Eric Bell of the University of Michigan’s Department of Astronomy were able to piece together the lingering tattle-tale evidence of this galactic crime, revealing all that is left of the tragically cannibalized sister of our own Galaxy.

Currently, the three largest member galaxies of the Local Group (in decreasing order) are the Andromeda Galaxy, the Milky Way, and the Triangulum Galaxy. The larger duo of these three spiral galaxies each have their own system of orbiting satellite galaxies. Both the Milky Way and Andromeda are majestic spirals that display starlit spiral arms that whirl majestically in space. Andromeda is, at present, a safe 2 million light-years away from our Milky Way. However, this will not always be the case. The relentless and merciless pull of powerful gravity is tugging Andromeda towards our Galaxy at the breathtaking speed of 250,000 miles per hour. In about 5 billion years, our Milky Way and Andromeda will crash into one another, merging to create one single enormous Galaxy.

Indeed, the future collision of our Galaxy with Andromeda will create an entirely new Galaxy, one that will likely display an elliptical shape, instead of the elegant starlit spiral “pinwheel” arms of its two badly disrupted galactic parents. This strange new Galaxy has been given the name Milkomeda, even though there will likely be no human life left on Earth to witness the enormous new Galaxy that will rise from the wreckage of this monumental merger.

Such galactic wrecks may not be quite as violent as once thought. These collisions have been observed in distant galaxies throughout the Cosmos, and even though galaxies have been seen smashing into one another, it is not likely that any two of their constituent stars will meet up and merge. The splattered wreckage that would be left behind in the wake of a two-star collision would create a big stellar mess. The good news is that the space between stars within a host galaxy is usually vast. For this reason violent stellar smash-ups rarely occur.

In contrast, the floating clouds of gas and dust that swirl around together within their host galaxies, will probably suffer as a result of a smash-up and merger. That sort of unfortunate and catastrophic event will be violent and make a horrific mess. This is because such a wreck will trigger star-birth within churning, writhing clouds of gas and dust. These cold dark clouds serve as the strange cradles of bright new baby stars, that are born in a dramatic, brilliant, blaze of newborn glory.

Galactic head-long collisions occur over long stretches of time–they can last as long as millions to billions of years, and they are not quickly over for the suffering parties. However, our Milky Way has been lucky because a violent collision with a similarly large galaxy has not occurred throughout its entire 13.6 billion year history–at least, not yet.

When Andromeda crashes into our Milky Way, our entire night sky will experience a sea-change. About 3.75 billion years from now, the sky above our planet will literally be filled with Andromeda, as it mercilessly makes its fatal approach towards our Galaxy. For the next few billion years, as a result of Andromeda’s approach, there will be brilliant blasts of fiery stellar birth lighting up Earth’s night sky.

In about 7 billion years, the sky above our planet will become even more strange and alien. The glaring core of the newborn Milkomeda Galaxy–now our own host Galaxy–will take over the entire sky. However, the prospect of human beings still being around to view this sight is remote. This is because our Sun will probably evolve into an enormous, swollen, dying red giant star approximately 5 billion years from now, and will have already incinerated its inner planets–Mercury, Venus, and Earth–long before the head-long smash-up between the two galaxies has occurred.

Both our Milky Way and Andromeda are approximately the same age. Although the two sister galaxies are considered to be almost identical twins, it is a little difficult to predict which one of the doomed duo will suffer the most when the end comes. However, since Andromeda is a bit larger than our own Galaxy, technically it will be Andromeda that will feast on our Milky Way.

A Sister Galaxy Gone Missing

Astronomers have known for a long time that nearly invisible large halos of stars surround galaxies, and that these halos contain the sad relics of smaller cannibalized galaxies. Indeed, a large galaxy like Andromeda is thought to have devoured literally hundreds of its smaller companions in this galaxy-eat-galaxy Universe. For this reason, many astronomers believed it would be a difficult task to learn about the history of any particular one of these unfortunate little galaxies.

However, the team of astronomers using new supercomputer simulations were able to come to a new understanding. The scientists found that even though a large number of companion galaxies were devoured by Andromeda, most of the stellar inhabitants of that galaxy’s outer dim halo were the unfortunate children of a shredded single large galaxy.

“It was a ‘eureka’ moment. We realized we could use this information of Andromeda’s outer stellar halo to infer the properties of the largest of these shredded galaxies,” commented study lead author Dr. D’Souza in a July 23, 2018 University of Michigan Press Release. Dr. D’Souza is a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Michigan.

“Astronomers have been studying the Local Group–the Milky Way, Andromeda and their companions–for so long. It was shocking to realize that the Milky Way had a large sibling, and we never knew about it,” said co-author Dr. Bell in the same Press Release. Dr. Bell is a University of Michigan professor of astronomy.

This unfortunate sister galaxy of our Milky Way, M32p, which was shredded mercilessly by the voracious Andromeda galaxy, was at least 20 times larger than any galaxy which merged with the Milky Way over the course of its more than 13 billion year existence. M32p would have been quite massive, and likely would have been the third largest galaxy in the Local Group, after Andromeda and our Milky Way, had it not been shredded and consumed by Andromeda.

This new study might also solve an intriguing mystery: the formation of Andromeda’s puzzling M32 satellite galaxy. The astronomers now suggest that the compact and dense M32 is really the surviving central heart of our Milky Way’s long-lost sister. The team of astronomers compare M32 to the pit of a plum.

M32 is a weirdo. While it looks like a compact example of an old, elliptical galaxy, it actually has lots of young stars. It’s one of the most compact galaxies in the Universe. There isn’t another galaxy like it,” Dr. Bell noted in the July 23, 2018 University of Michigan Press Release.

The new research may change the currently most widely accepted scientific understanding of the way galaxies evolve. The astronomers realized that Andromeda’s disk had managed to survive a smash-up with a massive galaxy. This impact would challenge the traditional viewpoint that such large interactions would invariably destroy the orderly disks of spirals, thus creating only elliptical galaxies.

The timing of the impact may also shed new light on the thickening of Andromeda’s disk, as well as on a mysterious blast of brilliant star-birth that occurred about two billion years ago. This finding was independently reached by a team of French astronomers early in 2018.

“The Andromeda Galaxy, with a spectacular burst of star formation, would have looked so different 2 billion years ago. When I was at graduate school, I was told that understanding how the Andromeda Galaxy and its satellite galaxy M32 formed would go a long way towards unraveling the mysteries of galaxy formation,” Dr. Bell explained in the July 23, 2018 University of Michigan Press Release.

The good news is that this study can also be used for other galaxies. This would enable astronomers to measure their most massive past galaxy mergers. Armed with this new knowledge, scientists can go on to untangle the intricate and complicated tapestry of cause and effect that triggers galaxy growth, as well as learn about what mergers do to the galaxies that must suffer through them.

Source by Judith E Braffman-Miller

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Consider the Advantages of a Samsung Refrigerator



Samsung is a well-known name in the electronics industry, but it should be known that this company also makes quality appliances. You should learn a little about the Samsung refrigerator before shopping for a new fridge. Find out what sets this company apart from other manufacturers of appliances, as you just may be interested in purchasing this kind of fridge once you know about more about it.

Like some of the top fridge manufacturers, Samsung makes a few types of refrigerators. Of course there is the popular side-by-side fridge, which features the freezer on the left and the refrigerated space on the right. This is quite commonly seen in most modern kitchens since the technology is still fairly new, but the fridge is typically affordable. The Samsung refrigerator can also be found in another popular style known as the bottom freezer fridge. Just as the name indicates, this model features the freezer on the bottom, usually as a drawer that pulls out. The refrigerated space takes up the entire top of the appliance, as is usually seen French door style, with two doors side by side.

Samsung might concentrate on only two types of fridges, but this company is well-known for the quality it provides with its small selection. For example, many fridges made by Samsung are Energy Star compliant, which means that they are meant to save you money on utility bills since they take less energy than older fridges do. This type of appliance often even includes an alarm that goes off when the fridge door is left open too long, further saving you money on electricity bills. Another Samsung refrigerator aspect is the Twin Cooling System, which creates air for the fridge and freezer separately. This is helpful since the freezer needs to stay dry, while having some moisture in the refrigerated space can help produce stay fresh for as long as possible.

If you are still undecided on which brand to go with when you buy a new fridge, you should keep the Samsung refrigerator in mind. This product clearly has a few perks that you might not have known previously. Samsung makes more than just products that entertain, such as televisions. It also creates products that are perfect for your kitchen.

Source by Amy Smart

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Sprint Reverse Cell Phone Lookup – And It’s Free!



You need a Sprint reverse cell phone lookup and you need it now. There are calls coming into your cell phone at all hours of the day and night and it’s beginning to really bother you. Don’t wait another minute; start your search!

Can I really do this and it may be free also?

Yes! Just follow these instructions and you have a great chance of finding the name behind a landline phone number. Unfortunately, looking up a cell phone number in the same way may not yield very accurate results. But it’s free and it can’t hurt. It will just cost you a few minutes of your time.

To find a Sprint reverse cell phone lookup:

o Google the phone number. If you don’t get any results, then add to the number the city and state. You can find that because you have the area code. Sometimes that helps.

o If it’s a landline, you will probably get several results. Most will be either exact or close to the exact name and address.

o Check for an online registry either through Yahoo online directory or the whitepages.

o If all else fails, you may have to find a company that does this as a business.

Many companies who you find online do not have updated registries. To do an effective Sprint reverse cell phone lookup, that is very important. Verizon, AT&T, Sprint and many other phone companies endorse InfoRegistry. They are very accurate and offer a money back guarantee. Can’t get better than that!

Source by Sam Drake

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