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It's A Galaxy Eat Galaxy Universe - HIP HOP MINUTE
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It’s A Galaxy Eat Galaxy Universe



It’s a galaxy eat galaxy Universe, where small galaxies collide and merge to create the large magnificent galaxies that we see today. It is well-known that our barred-spiral Milky Way Galaxy attained its majestic size this way, devouring smaller galaxies floating around in its own general neighborhood, thus growing ever larger and larger. The relics of such terrible feasts can still be observed in the form of star streams that are the sad remnants of those dwarf galaxies that our Galaxy devoured long ago. Indeed, a duo of irregular dwarf galaxies, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, were in the midst of merging into a single larger galaxy when they tumbled into our own. In August 2018, a team of astronomers announced their new findings that this duo of galactic dwarfs contain enough gas to replenish 50% of our Milky Way’s supply of star-birthing fuel–thus providing the seeds for the brilliant birth of future baby stars.

The new study is published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (U.K.), and it sheds new light into the way that large galaxies like ours are able to gravitationally snatch this gas so easily. The scientists simulated the collision of a duo of distant dwarf galaxies in order to understand how their gas gets dispersed during the merger process. In their simulations, they watched the bigger galaxy, NGC 4490, steal gas from its smaller sibling by way of a gravitational effect resulting from their lopsided difference in size. As the duo circled ever closer and closer and closer to one another in this remarkable celestial ballet, the smaller galaxy’s tail of gas was swept ever farther and farther and farther away. This finding supports a study published earlier in 2018 that managed to fingerprint the gas streaming from the Magellanic Clouds into the Milky Way as belonging to the Small Magellanic Cloud.

A Tale Of Two Galactic Dwarfs

The Magellanic Clouds are a pair of nearby, small, and irregular satellite galaxies in orbit around our own–they are also the brightest of our Milky Way’s small galactic satellites. The shapeless duo puff clouds of gas both ahead of and behind them in a long ribbon that is appropriately dubbed the Magellanic Stream. The Magellanic Stream is a long streamer that reaches almost half way around our Milky Way, and performs a rippling dance beyond our Galaxy’s edge. Most of the ribbon was ripped from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) approximately 2 billion years ago, but a small cloud of gas formed more recently from the gas belonging to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC).

The LMC and SMC got their names when the explorer Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) mistook them for clouds–and the pair of so-called “clouds” were named in his honor.

The LMC is only about 158,200 light-years from Earth, and the SMC is not much further than that at approximately 199,000 light-years. For comparison, our entire Galaxy is about 100,000 light-years across, and it is about three million light-years away from the Andromeda Galaxy (M31), which is another large spiral, as well as the nearest large galactic neighbor of our Milky Way.

More than twenty small satellite galaxies orbit our own, but only the Magellanic Clouds sparkle brightly enough with brilliant starlight to be observed from our planet with the unaided human eye. The Magellanic Clouds–in contrast to our Galaxy’s other orbiting satellites–are filled with gas. Gas is the precious stuff that galaxies use to create bright new fiery baby stars.

The people of several ancient cultures were aware of the existence of the Magellanic Clouds. Probably the most ancient continuous extant references to the duo of “clouds” were made by observers from the Khoisan culture of Southern Africa. The ancestors of these people apparently lived separately from all other living human cultures for thousands of years.

Another lengthy history of cultural association may have re-emerged with the migration of humans south from the Middle East reaching Australia about 50 to 60 thousand years ago. These ancient migrating people were the ancestors of the modern Aborigines, whose various cultures have produced a variety of fascinating myths and folk-tales about this pair of starlit nearby galaxies.

The ancient Polynesians also knew of the existence of the Magellanic Clouds, and they served as important navigation markers. Taken together they were also known to the Maori of New Zealand as Nga Patori-Kaihau or as Te Reporepo. The ancient Maori people believed that the two “clouds” were predictors of winds.

The Magellanic Clouds have been known since the first millennium in Western Asia. The first mention of the LMC is by the Muslim polymath Ibn Qutaybah, in his book on Al-Anwan (stations of the Moon in pre-Islamic Arabian Culture).

The people of ancient Sri Lanka referred to the Clouds as the Maha Mera Paruwathaya (the great mountains). This is because they thought that they looked like the peaks of a faraway mountain range.

In Europe, the Clouds were first reported by the 16th century Italian authors Peter Martyr d’Anghiera and Andrea Corsali, and both were derived from observations on Portuguese voyages. Subsequently, they were reported by Antonio Pigafetta, who was a member of the expedition of the explorer Ferdinand Magellan on its circumnavigation of the globe (1519-1522).

The LMC and its sibling, the SMC, are both conspicuous celestial objects in the southern hemisphere of our planet. The duo of “clouds” look like separated chunks of our Milky Way to the unaided human eye, and the true distance between them is approximately 75,000 light-years. Until the discovery of the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy in 1994, the pair were the closest known galaxies to our own. However, in 2003, the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy was discovered to be even closer to our Galaxy, and is currently considered to be our nearest galactic neighbor. The total mass of the duo of Clouds is uncertain.

For some time, many astronomers proposed that the Magellanic Clouds had orbited our Galaxy at approximately their current distances for eons. However, new evidence now indicates that it is rare for the duo to travel as close to the Milky Way as they are now. Both observation and theory suggest that the duo have both been significantly distorted by tidal interactions with our much larger Galaxy as they wander closer and closer to it. The LMC displays a very clear elegant and orderly spiral structure in radio-telescope images of neutral hydrogen. Ribbons composed of neutral hydrogen tie them both to our Milky Way and to each other. Both members of the duo look like disrupted barred spiral galaxies. Their gravity has also influenced our Milky Way as well, distorting the outer limits of the Galactic disk.

In addition to their differing structure and smaller mass, the pair of Clouds differ from our Milky Way in two important ways. First, they are more metal-poor than our Galaxy (in astronomy a “metal” is any atomic element heavier than helium). Second, they are heavily laden with gas; a greater percentage of their mass is hydrogen and helium compared to our own Milky Way. Both members of the duo display nebulae and youthful populations of stars. However, like our own Galaxy, their stars range in age from stellar babies to elderly stars. This suggests a long star formation history.

The Primordial Birth Of Galaxies

The Universe was born approximately 13.8 billion years ago in the exponential inflation of the Big Bang. Many scientific cosmologists propose that it started off as an exquistely tiny speck, that was smaller than a proton, only to attain macroscopic size in the tiniest fraction of a second. It has been expanding at a much more stately pace ever since–and it has been cooling off as well. The primordial Universe was much smaller and more crowded than it is today. Primeval protogalaxies were closer together when our Universe was young. For this reason, the ancient galaxies had a considerably greater chance of bumping into one another and merging to form ever larger and larger galaxies.

The first protogalaxies probably were born when the Universe was less than a billion years old. The most widely accepted model of galactic formation proposes that the majestic, large galaxies were uncommon in the ancient Universe, and only eventually reached their enormous sizes after they had snared smaller galaxies and then merged with them.

The star-blazing galaxies of the Cosmos switched on at the end of what is called the Cosmic Dark Ages, and brightened up what had previously been a dark and featureless swath of unimaginable blackness. The first light-emitting objects brought the Cosmic Dark Ages to an end when they sent their newborn light streaming out into Spacetime..

Most scientific cosmologists propose that the first galaxies to be born in the ancient Universe were opaque, dark, and shapeless clouds composed mostly of hydrogen gas. These primordial clouds had silently, slowly gathered within the secretive hidden hearts of dark matter halos. These newborn protogalactic clouds composed primarily of pristine hydrogen gas gravitationally snared the first generation of brilliant, gigantic baby stars. The brightly shining neonatal stars and extremely hot gas then lit up the ancient Cosmos.

The dark matter is a mysterious form of matter–it is not composed of the “ordinary” atomic matter that we are familiar with. Indeed, dark matter is transparent and invisible because it does not dance with light or any other form of electromagnetic radiation. Many scientists think that it is really there because it does exert gravitational effects on objects that can be seen.

Star Birth

For a long time after NGC 4490 collided with its smaller sibling, SN 4485, and merged with it to create a single galaxy, their gas continued to expand. The astronomers who performed the new study found that in another five billion years, the colliding galaxies’ tails of gas will extend over an impressive distance of about 1 million light-years–this amounts to almost double its current length.

“After five billion years, 10 percent of the gas envelope still resides more than 260,000 light-years from the merged remnant, suggesting it takes a very long time before all the gas falls back to the merged remnant,” Dr. Sarah Pearson noted in an August 9, 2018 Columbia University Press Release. Dr. Pearson is now a fellow at the Flatiron Institute’s Center for Computational Astrophysics (Simons Foundation) in New York City.

When the scientists compared their results to the real telescope observations of NGC 4490/4485, the results they obtained matched their simulations. This provided a strong indication that their model was accurate.

The new findings also are consistent with what astronomers know about how gas is recycled in the Cosmos. As clouds of gas grow increasingly extended, the gas becomes looser. This makes it easier for a larger galaxy to meet up with the cloud and eat it for dinner. The simulation indicates that this spreading out process has enabled the Milky Way to effectively strip gas from the SMC. Furthermore, this means that this sort of gas-transfer may be a frequent occurrence throughout the Universe.

“Our study suggests that similar dwarf pairs exist out there. Because their gas is so extended, if they fall into something like the Milky Way, their gas is easily shed,” Dr. Pearson explained in the August 9, 2018 Columbia University Press Release.

In addition, the new study suggests that the declining density of the gas on the outer limits of colliding and merging dwarf galaxies makes it difficult for new stars to be born–a conclusion matched by direct observations. The astronomers plan to continue studying other duos of dwarf galaxies in the process of colliding in order to refine their new model.

The other authors of the study are George Privon (University of Florida), Gurtina Besia (University of Arizona), David Martinez-Delgado (Astronomical Calculation Institute), Kathryn Johnston (Columbia University), R. Jay Gabany (Black Bird II Observatory), David Patton (Trent University), and Nitya Kallivayalil (University of Virginia).

The new study is published in the July 3, 2018 edition of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society under the title: Modeling the Baryon Cycle in Low Mass Galaxy Encounters: the Case of NGC 4490 & NGC 4485.

Source by Judith E Braffman-Miller

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Astronomers Have Finally Found Our Galaxy’s Missing Sister



The first galaxies formed very long ago, when our almost 14 billion year old Universe was less than a billion years of age. Our own Milky Way Galaxy likewise is very ancient–a large starlit pinwheel twirling in space that is thought to be about 13.6 billion years old–give or take 8 million years. Indeed, the oldest known star in our Galaxy is 13.7 billion years old. Altogether, the Milky Way is thought to host approximately 300 billion stars. But, even though our Galaxy has many galactic neighbors, one of its enormous starlit siblings has gone missing, disappearing mysteriously billions of years ago. In July 2018, astronomers at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, announced that they have finally found our Milky Way’s long lost sibling. Alas, the team of scientists have deduced that our current closest large galactic neighbor shredded and cannibalized this massive sister of our Milky Way two billion years ago.

Even though it was mostly devoured and shredded, this massive sister galaxy left behind, as a lingering tattle-tale relic of its former existence, a trail of evidence revealing that it was once here. This rich trail of evidence is composed of an almost invisible halo of stars that is larger than our Milky Way’s largest spiral neighbor, the Andromeda galaxy itself. The evidence also consists of an elusive stream of stars, as well as a separate mysterious and enigmatic galaxy named M32. Discovering and observing this partly devoured doomed galaxy will help astronomers understand how disk galaxies like our Milky Way evolve and manage to survive large and violent mergers wth other enormous galaxies.

Our Galaxy And Its General Neighborhood

The group of galaxies that includes our Milky Way is appropriately named the Local Group, and it hosts more than 54 galaxies, most of which are relatively small dwarfs. Astronomers have predicted that sometime between 1 billion and 1 trillion years from now, all of the galactic constituents of the Local Group will crash into one another, and these collisions and resulting mergers will create a single enormous galaxy. The gravitational center of the Local Group today is situated between our Milky Way and Andromeda, and the entire group sports the impressive diameter of about 3.1 million parsecs. It also displays a binary (dumbell) distribution. The Local Group itself is a constituent of the larger Virgo Supercluster that may, in turn, be a part of the recently discovered Laniakea Supercluster.

The unfortunate, decimated galaxy, dubbed M32p, was once the third-largest member of the Local Group, after our Milky Way and Andromeda. Using supercomputer models, Dr. Richard D’Souza and Dr. Eric Bell of the University of Michigan’s Department of Astronomy were able to piece together the lingering tattle-tale evidence of this galactic crime, revealing all that is left of the tragically cannibalized sister of our own Galaxy.

Currently, the three largest member galaxies of the Local Group (in decreasing order) are the Andromeda Galaxy, the Milky Way, and the Triangulum Galaxy. The larger duo of these three spiral galaxies each have their own system of orbiting satellite galaxies. Both the Milky Way and Andromeda are majestic spirals that display starlit spiral arms that whirl majestically in space. Andromeda is, at present, a safe 2 million light-years away from our Milky Way. However, this will not always be the case. The relentless and merciless pull of powerful gravity is tugging Andromeda towards our Galaxy at the breathtaking speed of 250,000 miles per hour. In about 5 billion years, our Milky Way and Andromeda will crash into one another, merging to create one single enormous Galaxy.

Indeed, the future collision of our Galaxy with Andromeda will create an entirely new Galaxy, one that will likely display an elliptical shape, instead of the elegant starlit spiral “pinwheel” arms of its two badly disrupted galactic parents. This strange new Galaxy has been given the name Milkomeda, even though there will likely be no human life left on Earth to witness the enormous new Galaxy that will rise from the wreckage of this monumental merger.

Such galactic wrecks may not be quite as violent as once thought. These collisions have been observed in distant galaxies throughout the Cosmos, and even though galaxies have been seen smashing into one another, it is not likely that any two of their constituent stars will meet up and merge. The splattered wreckage that would be left behind in the wake of a two-star collision would create a big stellar mess. The good news is that the space between stars within a host galaxy is usually vast. For this reason violent stellar smash-ups rarely occur.

In contrast, the floating clouds of gas and dust that swirl around together within their host galaxies, will probably suffer as a result of a smash-up and merger. That sort of unfortunate and catastrophic event will be violent and make a horrific mess. This is because such a wreck will trigger star-birth within churning, writhing clouds of gas and dust. These cold dark clouds serve as the strange cradles of bright new baby stars, that are born in a dramatic, brilliant, blaze of newborn glory.

Galactic head-long collisions occur over long stretches of time–they can last as long as millions to billions of years, and they are not quickly over for the suffering parties. However, our Milky Way has been lucky because a violent collision with a similarly large galaxy has not occurred throughout its entire 13.6 billion year history–at least, not yet.

When Andromeda crashes into our Milky Way, our entire night sky will experience a sea-change. About 3.75 billion years from now, the sky above our planet will literally be filled with Andromeda, as it mercilessly makes its fatal approach towards our Galaxy. For the next few billion years, as a result of Andromeda’s approach, there will be brilliant blasts of fiery stellar birth lighting up Earth’s night sky.

In about 7 billion years, the sky above our planet will become even more strange and alien. The glaring core of the newborn Milkomeda Galaxy–now our own host Galaxy–will take over the entire sky. However, the prospect of human beings still being around to view this sight is remote. This is because our Sun will probably evolve into an enormous, swollen, dying red giant star approximately 5 billion years from now, and will have already incinerated its inner planets–Mercury, Venus, and Earth–long before the head-long smash-up between the two galaxies has occurred.

Both our Milky Way and Andromeda are approximately the same age. Although the two sister galaxies are considered to be almost identical twins, it is a little difficult to predict which one of the doomed duo will suffer the most when the end comes. However, since Andromeda is a bit larger than our own Galaxy, technically it will be Andromeda that will feast on our Milky Way.

A Sister Galaxy Gone Missing

Astronomers have known for a long time that nearly invisible large halos of stars surround galaxies, and that these halos contain the sad relics of smaller cannibalized galaxies. Indeed, a large galaxy like Andromeda is thought to have devoured literally hundreds of its smaller companions in this galaxy-eat-galaxy Universe. For this reason, many astronomers believed it would be a difficult task to learn about the history of any particular one of these unfortunate little galaxies.

However, the team of astronomers using new supercomputer simulations were able to come to a new understanding. The scientists found that even though a large number of companion galaxies were devoured by Andromeda, most of the stellar inhabitants of that galaxy’s outer dim halo were the unfortunate children of a shredded single large galaxy.

“It was a ‘eureka’ moment. We realized we could use this information of Andromeda’s outer stellar halo to infer the properties of the largest of these shredded galaxies,” commented study lead author Dr. D’Souza in a July 23, 2018 University of Michigan Press Release. Dr. D’Souza is a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Michigan.

“Astronomers have been studying the Local Group–the Milky Way, Andromeda and their companions–for so long. It was shocking to realize that the Milky Way had a large sibling, and we never knew about it,” said co-author Dr. Bell in the same Press Release. Dr. Bell is a University of Michigan professor of astronomy.

This unfortunate sister galaxy of our Milky Way, M32p, which was shredded mercilessly by the voracious Andromeda galaxy, was at least 20 times larger than any galaxy which merged with the Milky Way over the course of its more than 13 billion year existence. M32p would have been quite massive, and likely would have been the third largest galaxy in the Local Group, after Andromeda and our Milky Way, had it not been shredded and consumed by Andromeda.

This new study might also solve an intriguing mystery: the formation of Andromeda’s puzzling M32 satellite galaxy. The astronomers now suggest that the compact and dense M32 is really the surviving central heart of our Milky Way’s long-lost sister. The team of astronomers compare M32 to the pit of a plum.

M32 is a weirdo. While it looks like a compact example of an old, elliptical galaxy, it actually has lots of young stars. It’s one of the most compact galaxies in the Universe. There isn’t another galaxy like it,” Dr. Bell noted in the July 23, 2018 University of Michigan Press Release.

The new research may change the currently most widely accepted scientific understanding of the way galaxies evolve. The astronomers realized that Andromeda’s disk had managed to survive a smash-up with a massive galaxy. This impact would challenge the traditional viewpoint that such large interactions would invariably destroy the orderly disks of spirals, thus creating only elliptical galaxies.

The timing of the impact may also shed new light on the thickening of Andromeda’s disk, as well as on a mysterious blast of brilliant star-birth that occurred about two billion years ago. This finding was independently reached by a team of French astronomers early in 2018.

“The Andromeda Galaxy, with a spectacular burst of star formation, would have looked so different 2 billion years ago. When I was at graduate school, I was told that understanding how the Andromeda Galaxy and its satellite galaxy M32 formed would go a long way towards unraveling the mysteries of galaxy formation,” Dr. Bell explained in the July 23, 2018 University of Michigan Press Release.

The good news is that this study can also be used for other galaxies. This would enable astronomers to measure their most massive past galaxy mergers. Armed with this new knowledge, scientists can go on to untangle the intricate and complicated tapestry of cause and effect that triggers galaxy growth, as well as learn about what mergers do to the galaxies that must suffer through them.

Source by Judith E Braffman-Miller

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Consider the Advantages of a Samsung Refrigerator



Samsung is a well-known name in the electronics industry, but it should be known that this company also makes quality appliances. You should learn a little about the Samsung refrigerator before shopping for a new fridge. Find out what sets this company apart from other manufacturers of appliances, as you just may be interested in purchasing this kind of fridge once you know about more about it.

Like some of the top fridge manufacturers, Samsung makes a few types of refrigerators. Of course there is the popular side-by-side fridge, which features the freezer on the left and the refrigerated space on the right. This is quite commonly seen in most modern kitchens since the technology is still fairly new, but the fridge is typically affordable. The Samsung refrigerator can also be found in another popular style known as the bottom freezer fridge. Just as the name indicates, this model features the freezer on the bottom, usually as a drawer that pulls out. The refrigerated space takes up the entire top of the appliance, as is usually seen French door style, with two doors side by side.

Samsung might concentrate on only two types of fridges, but this company is well-known for the quality it provides with its small selection. For example, many fridges made by Samsung are Energy Star compliant, which means that they are meant to save you money on utility bills since they take less energy than older fridges do. This type of appliance often even includes an alarm that goes off when the fridge door is left open too long, further saving you money on electricity bills. Another Samsung refrigerator aspect is the Twin Cooling System, which creates air for the fridge and freezer separately. This is helpful since the freezer needs to stay dry, while having some moisture in the refrigerated space can help produce stay fresh for as long as possible.

If you are still undecided on which brand to go with when you buy a new fridge, you should keep the Samsung refrigerator in mind. This product clearly has a few perks that you might not have known previously. Samsung makes more than just products that entertain, such as televisions. It also creates products that are perfect for your kitchen.

Source by Amy Smart

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Sprint Reverse Cell Phone Lookup – And It’s Free!



You need a Sprint reverse cell phone lookup and you need it now. There are calls coming into your cell phone at all hours of the day and night and it’s beginning to really bother you. Don’t wait another minute; start your search!

Can I really do this and it may be free also?

Yes! Just follow these instructions and you have a great chance of finding the name behind a landline phone number. Unfortunately, looking up a cell phone number in the same way may not yield very accurate results. But it’s free and it can’t hurt. It will just cost you a few minutes of your time.

To find a Sprint reverse cell phone lookup:

o Google the phone number. If you don’t get any results, then add to the number the city and state. You can find that because you have the area code. Sometimes that helps.

o If it’s a landline, you will probably get several results. Most will be either exact or close to the exact name and address.

o Check for an online registry either through Yahoo online directory or the whitepages.

o If all else fails, you may have to find a company that does this as a business.

Many companies who you find online do not have updated registries. To do an effective Sprint reverse cell phone lookup, that is very important. Verizon, AT&T, Sprint and many other phone companies endorse InfoRegistry. They are very accurate and offer a money back guarantee. Can’t get better than that!

Source by Sam Drake

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